Q1: List three of the reports that could be established and used to report on the capacity of a financial system.
To meet organizational, strategic and operational plans, you need data that is begotten from financial systems. These financial systems are used to keep track on the overall financial activities of the organization through the means of established procedures. To report on the capacity of the financial system, we can use these reports:
• Profit and loss statements
• Cash plow/profit
• Budgets
Q2: Describe two different forecasting techniques which can be used to forecast financial data and business system requirements
A: To forecast accurate and reliable financial data and business system requirements, we can use a number of techniques, two of which are outlined below:
• Model Building: Based on the “what if” method and involving core mathematical reasoning to secure outcomes, this technique involves the use of analyzing different scenarios through the use of a computer by inserting, deleting or adjusting existing variables to signify their impact on the prevalent market.
• Survey of intentions: This technique is used much more commonly as it involves gathering data from your actual target market through the means of survey. A survey of intentions is primarily used to find out more on how future buying patterns will play out.
Q3: What areas of business would require forecasting? What are four questions you might consider when analyzing forecasted requirements?
A: Forecasting is highly important for all kinds of businesses as it allows them to plan ahead for any sudden changes or variations in future business scenarios including economic upturns, demand surges and more. But for accurate forecasting, you need to find out what exactly do you need to forecast. Here are some core areas that definitely require forecasting:
• Sales
• Expenses
• Cost of goods sold
• Cash flow
• Labor costs
For more accurate forecasts, you need to ask yourself or your management the following questions, the answers to which, will serve you much better in generating more reliable forecasts that stand against much of the expected and unexpected scenarios in the future:
• Will there be any historical patterns that might have a chance of re-occurrence, do I need them to do so or should I take steps towards stopping them occurring?
• What are the things that are critical for me to know in order to predict the future much more accurately?
• Is there any performance that should undergo evaluation?
• Are there any areas of the business that would be better off if I predict future outcomes now?
Q4: Describe two of the statutory requirements that must be taken into consideration when preparing and planning budget forecasts?
A: Statutory requirements are immensely important for businesses to understand and follow strictly in order to prepare and plan budget forecasts with much more accuracy and a high reference to compliance. Statutory requirements can be many, here we have listed two from among them:
• Reporting Periods: Such as the requirements of official/government regulatory bodies like those of the Australian Taxation office
• Audit Requirements: Involved financial reporting obligations that the company might be asked to follow to meet proper reporting standards without any dubiousness.
Q5: What are the types of issues could you prepare and present recommendations for relating to budget expenditure or modification?
A: Once a budget has been formulated, you now need to prepare and present any sort of recommendations you have related to budget expenditures and to bargain for modifications.
These recommendations are usually related to issues within the business such as:
• Are the costs that have been identified in the budget unrealistic?
• Is the timing of the expenditure of the budget too quick?
• Are there any categories that need to be added or removed from the budget plan?
• Are the projections too unrealistic or do they need modifications?
• Is the income too low as predicted or too high?
Q6: What techniques should be used to analyze the costs of, and returns from, assets and liabilities to identify the extent of debt and equity financing?
A: We apply accounting techniques as a major tool when we need to analyze the costs of assets and liabilities as well as their returns in a business. While the actual analysis of the costs of assets and liabilities and equity of a firm is done through analyzing the balance sheet. You can conduct a balance sheet analysis at any interval you want in a business, but its generally done on either a monthly, quarterly or yearly basis.
Q7: What type of management responsibilities should be established in relation to reporting and staff consultation?
A: The major types of management responsibilities for reporting and staff consultations are as follow:
• Building organizational policies and ensuring their implementation
• Ensuring that organizational procedures are being duly followed
• Guidelines are made with regards to reporting and they are being followed diligently
• Ensuring that the reporting stays within ethical boundaries
• The reporting is in line with modern day professional standards and compliance requirements
Q8: What are the two key methods used for analyzing financial reports and key information?
A: In the analysis of financial reports, we resort towards identifying trends between various accounts that are available in the balance sheet. This analysis allows us to determine the difference in size proportionally between these various accounts and in turn, that information is used to determine the health and viability of the business.
There are two key methods used for analyzing financial reports:
• Horizontal and vertical analysis
• Use of ratios
Q9: What information will you need to review when analyzing and evaluating the effects of the financial decisions on the ability of organization to meet planned outcomes?
A: The kind of information that is needed to be reviewed when analyzing and evaluating the effects of financial decisions on the ability of the organization to meet planned outcomes isas follow:
• The effect that a particular or set of financial decisions cost the organizations in terms of the amount of:
? Expenses incurred like the reallocation of the effort of the personnel and the time they gave to the tasks
? How much cash investment was required i.e. outlay of finances
• How much financial benefits was accrued from financial decisions especially in terms of growth in revenue and capital
Q10: Identify the types of comparative and trend information which can be used to confirm needs for future budget and associated resources.
A: Comparative financial data is derived by pitting past financial performances of the firm, period by period, against each other and analyzing their differences. Trend information, on the other hand, revolves around checking for patterns among collected information. Both of these may include:
• The amount of external sources that are available for future financing needs
• Pre-determined or newly agreed benchmarks
• Business activity
• Liquidity
• Expenses
• Profitability
• Sales
Q11: Outline the stages which would be involved in a negotiation to secure resources in accordance with relevant short term and long term needs
A: The following stages are included in a negotiation to secure resources:
• Preparation stage, where it is decided when and where exactly the meeting for the negotiation will take place and who is going to be present in it.
• Discussion stage, where matters of importance are discussed, viewpoints are forwarded and differences are duly identified
• Clarifying and understanding the relevant goals and points of view of each party in attendance
• Getting towards a win-win outcome, where the best possible commonalities and alternative solutions are presented
• Agreeing on a course of action based on the commonalities agreed within the negotiation
• Charting out a course for implementation of actions
Q12: What are the common types of categories of resources that a budget may allocate?
A: The most common type of categories of resources that a budget may allocate should duly cover all required aspects. The listing of all such important categories is as follow:
• People involved in making the budget i.e. researchers, part time staff etc
• Costs of travel to extract relevant information
• Vehicles to transport people from one place to another
• Required equipment
• Supplies and consumables
• Subcontracts
Q13: List three different types of resource allocation records you need to maintain and keep up to date.
A: The accuracy of resource allocation records depends on how well you maintain them. These records of resource allocation are critical for the best financial management of the business. Here are three different types of resources allocation records that should be keep with high accuracy and relevance to time:
• Inventory Details: How much inventory is left at the year end and how much was it at the start of financial year
• A carefully complied and update list of all creditors and debtors
• Details of wages and other staff related expenses including salaries paid, amount of fringe benefits paid etc.
Q14: Management systems will need to be developed or reviewed to enable what?
A: Management systems are built to ensure that the organization can meet its goals and objectives much more easily. These management systems are usually a set of policies and frameworks which allow for the easier realization of all tasks that need to be fulfilled. They assist in managing information through enabling their timely collection and processing.
Q15: What information do you need to monitor and report on budget expenditure?
A: Budget monitoring should be done at regular intervals in order to make sure that the projections are proceeding at determined values and whether any corrective actions are required to meet newer costs or challenges.
To do this, you need to monitor and report the following type of information:
• Full year budget activity for the year
• All the actual expenditure till date
• Any future commitments related to expenditure
• The balance remaining from the actual budget at the moment
• Expected position against the budget at a certain point in the future
• An alternative action plan to address any new variances
• Explaining these positive and negative variances which need to met
Q16: Discuss the method which should be used to evaluate and improve budget audit mechanisms and compliance requirements.
A: To evaluate and improve budget audit mechanisms and compliance requirements, you need a due estimation process in which you should have the following issues to consider:
• The due methods used to make the budget at first
• The assumptions taken when the budget was being formulated
• Were these assumptions used on a consistent basis?
• Is the supporting information used to craft the budget accurate?
• A comparison between this budget and previous term budgets
• A comparison between this budget and other similar budgets prevalent in the industry
Q17: Describe the type of financial risks that will need to be analyzed.
A: Financial risks are made up of all those different types of scenarios where the investor or shareholder could lose its investment. These risks need to be identified and accounted for in a good financial management system in order to work towards neutralizing them. But before this can happen, we need to identify the types of financial risks that will need to be analyzed, they are as follow:
• Market Risks: Related to movement in stock prices and interest rates due to high or low volatility
• Credit Risk: These type of risks are related to the chances of non-fulfillment of a firm’s financial credit obligations
• Liquidity Risks: The risks related to firm’s inability to carry out its planned transactions in case of low liquidity
• Operational Risks: Can be classified as risks pertaining to internal incompetency or unforeseen technical or management failures
Q18: What information should be documented in a financial risk management report?
A: If your organization requires you to document a financial risk management report, you will need to include the following kinds of information in it:
• Complete details of all the financial risks studied
• Methods put forward to neutralize the risk factors
• Any alternative courses of action
• The areas of the firm that are at the highest risk in being affected by these risks
Q19: What are the types of risk management procedures which should be implemented to regularly review financial risk management activities?
A: To review financial risk management activities, you need to identify the types of risks management procedures needed to conduct this review in a proper and comprehensive manner. These reviews need to be held on a regular basis and can include:
• Constantly engaging the people who identified such risks on how it would pan out in its worst possible form
• Conducting statistical analysis of numerical data related to these risks to identify the extent of their impact
• Talking to people who are working in an area where the risk will affect on how the risk will affect them
• Conducting reviews on historical information available for such risks in the past
Q20: Explain the types of deviation from budgets that generate an adverse effect on budget objectives?
A: Here are the following types of budget deviations that can have an adverse effect on the objectives of the budget:
• Variance in cost of unit prices being higher than previously determined or estimated
• The stock turnover rate is higher than you stipulated in the budget plan
• Sales prices remain low as compared to budget estimations
• Sales volume didn’t meet the expected volumes
• Different product categories did not meet their defined sales objectives and fluctuated
Q21: How could you develop an action plan to address deviations from budget objectives and projections?
A: When budget deviations are identified, you need to initiate action plans to accommodate for them and bring the budget back on track. These action plans are courses of action that are planned in order to meet certain objectives, which in this case is budget deviations. Here is how you can develop a working action plan for such tasks:
• All the tasks need to be listed in order to complete budget objectives first
• Now, you need to scrutinize the task further and look for the appropriate person with the relevant skill set to delegate the task to
• Identify the resources required to complete the tasks
• Now, provide a timeline required for completion of the tasks
• Conduct a final review to confirm whether all the tasks have been properly identified
Q22: List and describe three different financial documents that are commonly used to monitor and review a financial management system.
A: To present disparate financial data in an organized manner, we use financial documents. These documents are formalized records of all the financial activity that took place within a business within a specified time period. Here are three such different types of financial documents:
• Balance Sheet: This financial document records all the balances of total assets, liabilities and equities within a specified time period and is used to report on the firm’s overall financial viability
• Income Statement: A financial document to record the firm’s income, profits and expenses.
• Statement of Changes in Equity: Includes information on the change in owner’s equity within a business due to increase in profits or losses within a certain specified time period
Q23: What type of budget priorities might need to be revised and renewed in order to meet operational contingencies and risk management?
A: Budgets are important because they allow an organization to specify the appropriate amount of costs that are needed to be allocated to different areas of the business and are referred to as budget priorities. Following are the types of budget priorities that need to be revises in order to meet operational contingencies and risk management:
• The period in which reporting will be required
• The methods in which these reports are going to be used
• Communication requirements and needs of the organization
• Planning requirements
• Statutory, compliance and legal requirements
Q24: What are the four main categories of cost which will need to be managed and recorded in cash flow budget?
A: Cash flow budgets are maintained to know exactly, just how cash is coming in and going out of the business within a certain period. It’s a great predictor of how much monthly bank balance you will be left with. Following are the four main categories of costs that are recorded in a cash flow budget:
• Costs of goods sold
• Operation expenses
• Major purchasing
• Debt payments

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