This chapter will discuss about the characteristic of the mobile based attendance system, the gaps of the research, the methods and the data from previous research and any related research and studies.
Technology ConsiderationIntegrated Development EnvironmentPlatform
Android Operating System
Android is a mobile operating system created by Google, basically for touchscreen devices. Its architecture acquiesce users to operate mobile device naturally, with phone interaction that reflect same movement, such as swiping and tapping. More than that, Google occupy Android in televisions, cars and wristwatches, with different user interfaces.
iOS is a HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system" o "Mobile operating system" mobile operating system for Apple-manufactured devices. It operates on Apple products. iOS is be made for giving as the hidden software that own the iPhone users to communicate with the device utilizing movement, for example tapping.
Windows Phone is a Microsoft operating system that aimed samrtphones and Pocket PCs. It was launched based on Windows CE kernel. Windows Phone built in basic application created with no limitation by Microsoft.
BlackBerry OS is established mobile operating system created uniquely for Research In Motion’s (RIM) BlackBerry devices and for mobile phone environments. It is well known for its powerful support for push Internet email. BlackBerry OS can operate only on BlackBerry phones.
Symbian is an operating system for smartphones. It utilize user interface component based on the 5th Edition of S60. It created to expand in low-power battery-based device. Symbian normally written in C++. Somehow, application written and run in Python, Java ME, Flash Lie, Ruby and .NET. It can be installed on device using OTA (over-the-air).
webOS is a Linux-based established mobile operating system. It operate on device, for example Palm Pre phones, Palm Pixi phones and the HP Veer. It already created for smartphones and can interact to touchscreen and multitouch movement. It is greatly known for its capability to integrate perfectly with Web 2.0 technologies. WebOS also can be runs multitasking.
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system. It is the major usually utilized for Web application and for embedded application. It become solution way to established database system because of the quickness and dependability.
SQLite is an in-process library that put a complete, zero arrangement, serverless, transactional SQL database engine. It is atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability (ACID) acquiescent. It included in a small C programming library and is a basic part of client-based application. SQLite utilizes an advance SQL syntax and execute multitasking to de reads and write in parallel time.
Berkeley DB is a database recommended to give a better installed for key or value data. It is composed in C with API bindings for numerous programming languages. It does not support SQL queries. All queries and information analyse must be executed by application by using Berkeley DB API.
Program Language HYPERLINK ;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XAMPP; l ;cite_note-x_mariadb-3;
Java is a programming language that create software for numerous platform. When Java application been written, the compiled code operate on numerous operating system. Java obtains numerous of its syntax from C and C++ programming languages.
HTML5 is stands for Hypertext Markup Language revision 5. it is for the structure and organizing things on the World Wide Web. It is an effort to get order to web creation disorganization by arrangeing common practice, accepting executions from variety browsers. It expands, enhance and excuse the markup accessible for documentation, and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complicated web applications. For similar reasons, HTML5 is additionally a possibility for cross-platform mobile applications.
C++ is a widely useful programming language. It general-purpose object-oriented and generic programming features, and is an etended of C language. It review to be an intermediate-level language. It has additionally been discovered valuable in numerous different setting for software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications. C++ is a compiled language, with usage of it accessible on numerous platforms.
Swift is create a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, accumulated high-level programming language by for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift is based on Objective-C (ObjC) code composed for Apple items. It is worked with the open source LLVM compiler framework and has been incorporated into Xcode. On platforms other than Linux, it utilizes the Objective-C runtime library.
Mobile Development ToolAndroid Studio
Android Studio is integrated development environment (IDE) from Google that gives developers create applications for Android operating system platform included required tools. It has great user interface development with given template for launching pad.
Visual Studio Code
Visual Studio Code is high productivity code editor created by Microsoft with programming language service. It support for debugging, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, complex code completion, snippets, and code resegmenting.
Apache Cordova, for mobile development framework. It permits to use standard web technologies for cross-platform development. Application process covers focused on each platform and depend on API binding to communicate every device’s potential.
Ionic is for hybrid mobile application development. It is a dynamic HTML5 SDK for create mobile application by utilizing web technologies. It focus on user interface connection in application.
Quick Response Code (QR Code)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 : QR CodeQR code is a kind of 2D bar code that is utilized by using mobile phone to give easy access to data. It known as mobile tagging. The user points out the phone to QR code by scanning using barcode reader application.
Near-Field Communication (NFC)
NFC is a short-range wireless connectivity standard that use magnetic field induction to authorize simple and secure transmission data when two device touch each other over distance. It makes perfect for secure transaction.
Web Application is a software program client-server that process on web server. It is established by operating system. Since it run in web page, developers will not create multiple platform for web application.
Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)
Radio-frequency based on the wireless communication between object or tag and obtain data by using reader to detect and track the object. The tag range is restricted to several meter from the reader.
Biometric measure people’s one of a kind physical or conduct attributes to perceive or confirm their character. Normal physical biometric incorporate fingerprints; hand or palm geometry; and retina, iris, or facial qualities. Social characters incorporate mark, voice, keystroke example, and walk. Biometric can be incorporated into any application that requires security, get to control, and ID or check of individuals.
A voiceprint is an arrangement of quantifiable qualities of a human voice that particularly recognizes a person. It can be estimated latently as a client talks normally in discussion, or effectively, on the off chance that he or she is made to talk a passphrase. These attributes, which depend on the physical setup of a speaker’s mouth and throat, can be communicated as a numerical equation.
A facial recognition system is an innovation equipped for distinguishing or confirming a person from a computerized picture or a video outline from a video source.
Eigenface is the technique to detect face based on vector space of low dimension used in computer vision. It was used for face recognition system.
A geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a genuine world geographic territory. A geo-fence could be powerfully created as in a span around a point area, or a geo-fence can be a predefined defined of limits.
The utilization of a geo-fence is called geo-fencing, and one case of use includes an area mindful gadget of a Location-Based Service (LBS) client entering or leaving a geo-fence. This action could trigger an alarm to the gadget’s client and in addition informing to the geo-fence administrator. This information, which could contain the area of the gadget, could be sent to a mobile telephone or an email account.
Location tracking alludes to innovations that physically find and electronically record and track the development of individuals or articles. Area following innovation is being used each day with GPS route, areas situated on advanced pictures and hunting down organizations adjacent utilizing regular applications. While area following is regularly connected with cell phone use since cell phones have a GPS chip, there are different ways area following is finished.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
GIS is a computer system to get, keep, controlling, and display position or geographic data on Earth. It means taht some portion of information is a spatial.
GIS can utilize any data that include location. The location can be display in numerous method. It can be add information about people and make a comparing of location of different things to get the relation.
The Raspberry Pi is a little single-board with low cost and credit-size computer that inserts into monitor. It effective small device for people discover computing. The Raspberry Pi is slower than a modern workstation or work area however is as yet a total Linux PC and can give all the normal capacities that infers, at a low-control utilization level.
Related works is a work that already be done by the others person with similarity of the research, feature, pros and cons of the product.
Attendance Management System using a Mobile Device and a Web Application (Iio, 2016)
This article demonstrate that this system application running on smartphone is executed as Monaca-application. It depends on PhoneGap innovation, and it provide mobile application. Smartphone and PC are running an application of creation platform, which are connected in the similar network by limitation of Monaca development structure. Also, the server running ‘RollSheet’ application, which is conveyed as a Ruby-on-Rails application, is connected into the internet. However, there is no authentication for the user to access the application.
A Students Attendance System Using QR Code (Almasalha & Hirzallah, 2014)
This article tells about how the system be contained between online learning and manual learning as a service for attendance record-keeping process, which can spare additional time in taking attendance during lecture time. This system needs a basic login process by the instructor through the Server Module to make an encrypted QR code with specific data. It should be possible whenever before the lecture start. Prior the class begin or amid class, the lecturer shows an encrypted QR code to the student. Every students can scan the given QR code utilizing the system Mobile Module, made by the university through the mobile phone. Mobile Module will connect with the Server Module for the information that has been assemble for the affirmation. Alongside that, students’ facial image be captured when they scan.
This system can be develop as a plug-in module to the eLearning stage. At the point when students send their data through Mobile Module to the Server Module, it send student identification (ID), lecture date and time, attendance status and a size of students’ face picture that has been capture. However, there is no limitation time for the validation of QR code.
Attendance System Using NFC Technology and Embedded Camera Device on Mobile Phone (Subpratatsavee, Promjun, Siriprom & Sriboo, 2014)
This system utilizing NFC for connecting two devices close to each other, there is a virtual response. All lecturer need a mobile phone with an installed NFC reader that can read student NFC tag, and also embedded camera device on mobile phone that can take their photo. The reason is to stay away from students from giving their NFC tag to their colleague who got to the class, touch it as they attend the class.
When a student enter class and touch his or her NFC tag on lecturer’s mobile phone, the NFC reader will read the tag, while the camera device concurrently take the picture and send to database in lecturer’s mobile phone. Afterwards, the lecturer sends all data for backup in database server. However, there is no high security for the NFC tag belonging to the owner.
RFID-Based Attendance Management System (Nguyen & Chew, 2017)
This system installed RFID readers at each room of enormous formal function and laptop as a server application to spare and process the data sent by every users. RFID reader device is utilized to distinguish the identification tags of members and transmit the data to the server. The data spared in server are for advance characterization and analytic. However, using laptop as a server may overloaded to store the information.
Android Based Advanced Attendance Vigilance System Using Wireless Network with Fusion of Bio-metric Fingerprint Authentication. (Adal, Promy, Srabanti & Rahman, 2018)
This system is utilized a fingerprint as an user validation. Biometric exceptionally belongs a person. It will guarantee the physical presence of a worker. The worker needs to install the important APK file of the system to their mobile phone. From that point forward, they need to register with their fingerprint and extra personal data. Administrative supervisor will do all the registration procedure. Subsequently, a worker’s mobile phone is enrolled in the system through the MAC address. The android application will achieve the MAC address from the device and it send to server.
To guarantee the existing, a worker have to give his or her fingerprint through mobile phone’s fingerprint sensor after been permitted by the router. After it connected, the server will stacked and will begin counting the amount of time the device is connected. However, human’s fingerprint may slowly faded due to many reasons so it may cause some error for the authentication.
An Automated Student Attendance Tracking System Based On Voiceprint and Location. (Yang, Song, Ren ; Huang, 2016)
This system is developed based on Android platform. The attendance for the course is featured, while the past attendance checking activities status is recorded. After picking the course for attendance submission, students will follow the given guideline for verifying voiceprint. After success submit the attendance, application will process the verification. Once the accommodation can be check and put in database, the user will get showed successful message on screen. Lecturer can see the quantity of student who has submitted attendance, and pressing stop button for end of the activity. However, there is no verification for the user and may cause problem of the identification.
Face Recognition-Based Mobile Automatic Classroom Attendance Management System. (Samet ; Tanriverdi, 2017)
This article utilize a real-time face recognition-based mobile for attendance management system. It has been created by separating system based on Euclidean. It enable user to access whenever and anyplace. Teachers, students and guardians can use the application with no confinement and in real-time. The application is connected to cloud server by web service. Utilizing a picture that has been taken and sent to cloud server for face acknowledgement. All the outcome has been put away into database. Teacher can make student profile, add picture, add or remove student from class. The teacher can share the code to students so that they can access for the attendance via student application. However, the code that had been send by the lecturer may be broadcast to whoever not attend the class.
Implementation of Mobile Attendance Application Using Geo-Fence Technique. (Makhtar, Rosli, Fadzli, Shamsuddin ; Jamal, 2016)
The system is created based on Android, GPS innovation, Wi-Fi access point and server. The capacity of the system which include GPS collector embedded in mobile phone to get the location and automate the time in and out attendance in real-time by touching the button on the phone. IMEI number and GPS data is transmitted to a database. However, if there is no Wi-Fi so the user cannot access the system.
The Attendance Management System Based On Micro-cellular and GIS Technology. (Zhu, Wang ; Zhang, 2014)
This system trade off of the capacity modules which is the mobile handset location information reaction is for interpreting location information which got from the service centre of location information into time and region. Therefore, this module needs GIS database to get the location information to the schedule database of worker attendance management system. It standing out the work routine from the certified time and location. In case it facilities, the result for the attendance is same, else, it is sporadic.
Attendance Management and User Security System’s Based on Eigen Faces Algorithm using Raspberry Pi 2 and Ethernet. (Gaddam & Ramesh, 2016)
This article demonstrate that the Raspberry Pi 2 will be places passage of class was seen in the camera and it will put away in database. It contains internal timers and period of time for attendance been taken. The procedure begin at the face acknowledgement and is finished by face detection using Eigen faces algorithm. An application is made for indicating time taken, roll number and students’ face acknowledgement. All the data will put away in external memory device. Raspberry Pi 2 contains Ethernet port for post the attendance in server and connected by Local Area Network (LAN). USB port is utilized to interface camera and external storage device. The message will send to guardians cell phone for the absent student utilizing Geographic Messaging Solution (GMS). However, the external memory need a big storage and cause a high cost.
Summarization of Related WorkNOPROJECT’S TITLEAUTHORSIMILARITIESDIFFERENCESAttendance Management System using a Mobile Device and a Web ApplicationJ.Iio, 2016Mobile phone are for running applicationExecute as Monaca-application frameworkDistributed as a Ruby-on-Rails applicationUtilizing web application based
A Students Attendance System Using QR CodeAlmasalha & Hirzallah, 2014Utilizing QR CodeStudent’s photo will be capture as they scan the QR codeAttendance System Using NFC Technology and Embedded Camera Device on Mobile PhoneSubpratatsavee, Promjun, Siriprom ; Sriboo, 2014All data transfer to database Utilizing NFC technique
Camera device will take photo while NFC reader read the tag
RFID-Based Attendance Management System Nguyen ; Chew, 2017
The data saved in server Laptop as a server application
Utilizing RFID technique
Android Based Advance Attendance Vigilance System Using Wireless Network with Fusion of Bio-metric Fingerprint Authentication Adal, Promy, Srabanti ; Rahman, 2018
Real-time application Use fingerprint as an user authentication
Mobile phone registered in system through MAC address
An Automated Student Attendance Tracking System Based On Voiceprint and Location Yang, Song, Ren ; Huang, 2016
Developed based on Android platform Utilizing voiceprint technique
Face Recognition-Based Mobile Automatic Classroom Attendance Management System Samet ; Tanriverdi, 2017
Teacher can share code to students for access for attendance
Real-time application Filtering system based on Euclidean
Utilizing face recognition-based
Application connected to cloud server by web service
Teacher can create student profile, add or remove student from class
Implementation of Mobile Attendance Application Using Geo-Fence Technique Makhtar, Rosli, Fadzli, Shamsuddin ; Jamal, 2016
Developed based on Android
Real-time application Utilizing geo-fence technique
GPS embedded in mobile phone will get region and automate time in and out attendance.
The Attendance Management System Based On Micro-cellular and GIS Technology Zhu, Wang ; Zhang, 2014
Real-time application Utilize mobile location data response for convert into time and location
Comparing work schedule with real time and location
Attendance Management and User Security System’s Based on EIgen Faces Algorihm using Raspberry Pi 2 and Ethernet Gaddam & Ramesh, 2016
Timer has been set period for attendance been taken Utilizing Raspberry Pi 2 for Eigen faces technique
All data will transmit into external memory
The message will send for absent student using GMS
SummaryMany research have been done by taking any materials such as research articles, websites and many more. From the research done, it can be seen that there are many feature and technique regarding developing an attendance system. This project can be improve more by doing the comparison with all the related works.