Introduction According to Northouse

Introduction
According to Northouse (2010) leadership is a situation an individual influences a collection of individuals to attain a common goal. Management on the other side lays out the process that involves planning, directing, controlling and leading of an organisation through the efforts of other people (James, 2006). Leadership and management are expressions that are often considered identical, however, it is essential to understand that leadership is a important part of effective management and is vital for an organisation. However, John Kotter’s leadership vs. management theory discusses these differences. It tells us that a leader is someone who has followers even when they don’t necessarily have a position, whereas a manager has to use their position to get people to listen to them.

For one, leadership aids immensely on how subordinates perform through motivation and aiding employees feel part of the organisation by letting their voice heard, whereas management deals with controlling, planning, and directing towards desired goals of the organisation. Both of these elements are key to working hand in hand together. A lack of leadership and management in an organization may diminish efficiency, achieving of organizational goals, and may result in inflated self-interest and incompetence.

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the internal issues faced by Thuto Holdings and what best methods can be implemented to address the situation.

Key skills
John Kotter’s 8 steps
According to John Kotter’s (1996) theory views, change within an organisation has to go through various stages in which may result in it being completed and the organisation being more likely to be successfully at adapting to the continuous change. John Kotter has developed 8 steps towards change in an organisation on how they should be implemented. A brief detailed explanation of these steps are as follows;
Create a sense of urgency about the need for change; Successful engagement of management to support the change is very essential, in which he recommends promoting a sense of urgency for change to occur through the use of strategic planning tools and testing the results with authoritative sources and stakeholders.

Form a guiding coalition; John Kotter (1996) here emphasises a strong and visible leadership creating a strong for change rather than relying on management alone. The leadership generates an energy and a sense of emotion of being part of the change. Employees feel part of the change when being hands on with the change
A Develop a vision and strategy must be developed; the end change has to be presented in short powerful statements in such a way that those being influenced can see the future vision vividly and easily and leaders must be fluent in these statements and the developments to achieve the described end-product. This allows employees to trust and believe in the change.

Communicate the vision being laid out; Kotter (1996) under this aspect urges leaders to use all media platforms available to them and opportunities to communicate the new vision and key strategies to support the change but especially have frequent and informal contact in person with employees. For example, an email is viewed as having a limited contribution other than where prior contact has occurred. Leader availability and accessibility is stressed, particularly to communicate and address the emotional dimension of fears and concerns.

Enable action and removal of obstacles ; Leaders in this stage support moves to act on the change, eradicating any blockages to the change that must take place and assisting those apparently resistive to undertake the needed adaptation. A few may be resistant to the change but as a leader, influence plays a huge role.

Generate short-term achievements; early evidence of the end stage change counteracts negative or resistant influences within an organisation. Leaders need to include opportunities for short wins in plans and recognise those providing the early change. This keeps employees motivated to thrust on to accomplish the end result.

Hold the gains and build on change; Merge any early signs of change by increasing activity and continuously reviewing the changes. Exterminating potentially non-productive elements and bringing in new resources where appropriate to continue to build and refine the change process. This keeps the momentum at a maximum.

Anchor changes in the culture; John Kotter  (1996) observes that change must become embedded in the accepted local culture and practice must be continuously sustained. He recommends that leaders must provide progress reports and link these to the successes as frequently and visibly as possible.

Bolman & Deal’s four-frame model of successful Organizational Leadership
Other renowned authors that speak about good leadership and what a leader should encompass to lead an organisation is Bolman ; Deal’s, who developed the four-frame model of successful Organizational Leadership. (Bolman & Deal, 1994).

Bolman and Deal’s reframing organizations framework comprises of the following 4 frames as a window on how leaders can view and process their work, leadership, and organizations;
Structural Frame; focuses on how reporting relationships and hierarchies develop in response to an organization’s tasks and environment
Political Frame; this describes an organization that competes within their group for limited resources and time. It is made up of different individuals with several different and opposing beliefs, interests, and perceptions of the group and its current standing
Human Resources Frame; under this perspective it focuses on the integration of human needs and organizational requirements. A leader needs to be aware of strengthens and their special skills employees in order for them to be placed in the right position of the organisation.

Symbolic Frame; under this particular frame, seeks to interpret and shed light on the basic issues of meaning and faith that make symbols so powerful in the human experience and organizations. Work culture, rituals and ceremonies play a key role as these aspects promote stability, socializing with colleagues and reduction anxiety and ambiguities.

In conclusion to these frameworks, they demonstrate how different people process organizational life from different perceptions. They are helpful in explaining the multiple dimensions of life and leadership in organizations, and last but not the least, these frames provide both intellectual and practical paths on which the organizational head can lead successfully.

Gosling & Minztberg’s 5 Managerial Mind-sets
Last but not the least, Gosling ; Minztberg developed an in depth practice specifically aimed at managers to assist and enable themselves on how they can be able to assess, reflect, take action accordingly on issues pertaining to the organisation being led.

The practice of managing involves five perspectives which are parallel to a manger being able to evaluate themselves and the organisation as a whole. The fives perspectives are as follows;
Managing self (the reflective mind-set): Organisations do not need managers who see the world through their personal behaviours or those are incompetent to see beyond immediate situations. Reflection promotes a manager to look back on experiences and explain in detail how to act towards arising situations in an organisation.

Managing organisation (the analytic mind-set); involves a manager being analytic in an organisation. Given the manager oversees there physical assets, techniques, structures, and systems of the institution, it is essential the manager has an analytic mind set and approach to solving problems.

Manage context (the worldly mind-set); under this aspect, a manger has to be adaptive to the worldly environment, should be able to deal with different shades of customers, employees and the business environment as a whole if required to manage a different organisation anywhere in the world.

Manage relationships (the collaborative mind-set); people within an institution are not mere detachable human resources or assets that can be traded off easily. It’s vital for managers to build commitment among people through engaging them
Manage change (the action mind-set); change in any organisation is a repeatable process that needs to be always anticipated or expected. Change is not all about action results from outlined strategies that are meticulously planned, which eventually will unfold as systematically, managed sequences of decisions .As leaders/managers, change needs to be carried considering opinions from other colleagues, without just wiping out orders on what the change will be. Allowance of input from other minds promotes more cohesiveness towards the process of change.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the number of theories/models listed above, there are ways these models can be applied to Thuto Holdings situation.

John Kotter’s 8 steps; under John Kotter’s model, it dissects almost every aspect within an organisation. Within this model, one of John Kotter’s emphasises resonated around the need to communicate accordingly to colleagues and employees about brewing issues in any organisation. Pervious leadership lacked to communicate to other employees that work load my overload them due to retrenchments and resignations of other employees. Thuto Holdings employees demanded a 30% increment to their salaries due a number of problems, one of them being a shortage of employees which in turn burdened other employees. Firstly the new manager Ms Nkone has to have a sit down with union of employees and explain the arrays of the organisation. Integrative negotiation takes place when it comes to the increment , as both parties can come to a mutual understanding, as 30% increase wouldn’t feasible for the company as it has financial issues at the moment . Ms Nkone may apply the John Kotter 8 step to outline complaints, what needs to be done, who to intrust to propel the organisation towards a more productive environment. Change within an organisation may present certain individuals that are resistant to the change, which in turn Ms Nkone may apply certain methods that deal with resistant individuals, but in a nutshell, a few ways can be used, for example; listening to the resistant movement to why the change can’t take place or why they can’t be part of it. Engage these individuals to the process of change.

Bolman & Deal’s four-frame model of successful Organizational Leadership; this four frame model is an excellent tool to be implemented by Ms Nkone, subsequently when base issues have been handled. It paves a new path for any organisation going through a revamp, in terms of structural frame, human resource frame, political frame and symbolic frame. These all assist the leader build a new image of the organisation, which in Ms Nkone situation as a new managing director, this tool can assist her to implement her new philosophy to the company.

Conclusion
In conclusion to the research report, it is highly important for a manager/leader within an organisation to possess varied skills for effective leadership and management. If an individual concentrates all his/her energy in being a manager, it’s vital that one encompasses these skills with leadership skills as well. Under normal circumstances, a manager is believed to be one that just directs and gives out orders like a dictator. Leadership skills diminishes this aspect of being a dictator when one is in manager’s position. Based on my understanding, leadership and management skills co-habit well together in an organisation or any other institution that is human resource based.

REFERENCES
Kotter, John P. (2008) 1985. Power and Influence. Free Press. ISBN 1439146799.

Kotter, John P. (1996). Leading Change. Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 978-0-87584-747-4.