Historical and geographical aspects :3027045174870800The Basílica de San Isidoro de León is a church in León, Spain, located on the site of an ancient Roman temple and Its Christian roots can be traced back to the early 10th century . The first Christian structure on this site was a church dedicated to St. John, the Baptist and San Pelaya, which then was destroyed in the Muslim invasion by Al-Mansur (Almanzor) in 996. The basilica was the first Romanesque church which was built in the Kingdom of León following modern trends. It was of small dimensions: 16 meters long, with three naves, the central three meters wide and 2 meters near the sideline.
Architectural characteristics :The church of San Isidoro has gone through a major restoration of its exterior in recent year, and the beige toned exterior is rather unexpected and refreshing to the eyes of visitors who were used to the centuries old patina before the restoration. One view of the restored exterior of the Puerta del Perdón and the southern apse amply illustrates the striking difference.
442087024649100The west end of San Isidoro is anchored by the Romanesque Torre del Gallo right on top of the medieval city wall.
3569970292500400San Isidoro is built on the basilica plan: the nave with two aisles, projecting transepts and three apses on the axes.
Plan, Basilica of San Isidoro, León (Castile-León)
461010060007500The barrel vault surface of the nave is covered, and painted with a burnt clay color.. The aisles are built of groin vaults between semi-circular arches, again thought to be a replacement of flat timber roofs. There are columns located in front of windows on both the north and south aisle walls, indicating that they were added in order to support the additional load of the vaulting.
The nave arcades are slightly elongated half round, with extension of the straight sides
The intersection of the nave and crossing presents a marked visual difference in the colors of masonry as well as the stone joinery. The transepts (church VI) are built also with barrel vaults, The crossing, where one would expect a crossing tower, is covered with a barrel vault running east-west, continuing the flow of the length of the nave.
4819650-56197500A new sensibility is added in the north and south transept arches of the crossing, using scalloped stone work , which was influenced by the Moslems
The chancel (also church VI) was the section of San Isidoro that was built the last with the rib-vaults of the mature Gothic style.
The shape of the central apse was intended to be semi-circular, but it is built as a flat end, with slightly smooth masonry on the exterior.
The tympanum above the southern entrance to the of San Isidoro, is a unique piece of Romanesque architectural decoration that has intrigued scholars since its creation. It defies the traditional trend of scenes of the Last Judgement or Christ in Majesty, which can often be found in other churches from this period3618865-50482500
the Pantheon of the Kings of León. This funeral chapel of the kings of León is one of the examples of surviving Romanesque art in León. The columns are crowned with rare HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visigoth” o “Visigoth” Visigothic capitals, with floral or historic designs.