Biology research investigation Rationale

Biology research investigation

Rationale:

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The claim being is explored is “Stem cells and cloning technology should be used to assist in the management of species close to extinction”. This claim is unclear and too broad as it doesn’t specify whether the stem cells they should be using to effectively clone an animal should be, embryonic, pluripotent or multipoint. As well as it does not define the meaning of cloning technology and does not recommend a specific type of technology to use or give an suggestions whether that is therapeutic cloning, molecular cloning or organism cloning. As a result this claim came across as debatable and uncertain. Therefore this was further investigated and the the research question decided on was based off the information gathered. This lead to a draft research question “How can cloning technology assist the management of reducing the rate of extinction of sea turtles?” This was then further research “Many researchers agree that, at present, cloning is not a feasible or effective conservation strategy.” (Jabr, 2018) Like many other sea animals green sea turtles travel long distances to find feeding grounds and beaches to hatch their eggs on. It’s unfair and cruel that people want to hurt such a harmless animal, this lead to the final research question of, “Is animal cloning an inefficient process to reduce the rate of extinction of green sea turtles?”

Background research

The term “cloning” is where technology is used to recreate the exact same replica of a organism. They way reproductive cloning works is by first scientists take a somatic cell from the animals, they are attempting to clone. Once this step is complete they extract the cells nucleus which will contain DNA, and will get rid of the rest. Then the nucleus is removed from the egg and put into place further testing is done and if the eggs divides normally and forms blastocyst the scientists then transfer to its surrogate mother which will develop the cloned animal. There are many inefficient components that come with the cloning technology and outcomes. Research and studies hint that using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique to clone animals is an extremely inefficient process. Depending on the animal being cloned, “less than 0.1% or up to maximally 5% of the attempts results in the birth of a viable clone.” (Understanding Animal Research, 2018). An important way scientists are able to understand the development of mammals is by cloning although the success rates are very low. With less then 10% of these clones surviving to birth. “The majority of losses are due to embryonic death failure during the implantation process, or the development of a defective placenta” (UC Davis, 2018)

The largest sea turtle is the green sea turtle, being the only herbivore across all turtle species although many of the turtle populations are decreasing rapidly. Green turtles are found mainly in tropical waters. These turtles migrate long distances between feeding grounds and the beaches from where they lay. Sea turtles have fallen under the category of endangered due to many unfortunate events that occur regularly such as hunting of adults which will be used for materialistic objects as well as food and being caught in fishing gear which results is death. In some cases field biologists take good care of green sea turtles nestlings from predators by placing screens over them they also find ways to protect there eggs by possible moving the, closer to shore so the turtles have less distance to travel.

Evidence

In 1996 the first successful cloning experiment took place. Since then many efforts have been made to replicate the same experiment with other animals but many have been unsuccessful. A team in the laboratory of Atsuo Ogura at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Shinjuku, Tokyo, has recently cloned 12 mice as an experiment using the somatic cell nuclear transfer. The scientist who conducted this experiment discovered that all clones are more likely to have a range of impairments that my differ depending on the clone itself or the method to create it. For instance some experiments lead to mice being over weight, having signs of lung cancer and they have also found that “cloned mice started dying off at the age of 311 days” which is roughly half an average mice life. The experiment followed a specific method which is referred to as the somatic cell nuclear transfer or enucleation of oocyte. They did this by removing nuclei from testis cells and inserting them into enucleated egg cells the nucleus is then removed and further testing will be done to it to ensure the eggs divides normally. This test quickly became very unsuccessful when by the 800 day mark 10 of the 12 mice had already died in comparison to regular mice who roughly eighty percent would still be alive. From this experiment it is evident that studies show cloned animals have a much shorter lifespan. On top of this many clones have informalities that come with it and aren’t has healthy as the normal animal. Many dead clones all showed signs of high rates of pneumonia, live disease or cancer or weight issues.

Evaluation

Cloning animals comes with many unexpected challenges along the way which can effect the overall outcome of the experiment. If a cloning experiment is lucky enough to be successful it can still cause long term health problems. There are many limitations to the cloning of mice, this can go from have minor health issues sure as weight and obesity issues to having development delays and possibly even cancer which can all lead to an earlier death. As scientists gain more and more experience but yet cloning experiments persist to fail this raises many questions one of which being whether cloning should continue being used in experiments and whether the methods are safe enough with fewer then 10% of cloning efforts succeed. As a result it is observable that cloning animals is an inefficient process which can affect the overall health of the animal and can possibly force them to live a much shorter life then anticipated. The tests done to prove the original claim is wrong are highly effective, all the experiments show weak results only to demonstrate that cloning animals only leads to a more unhealthy life for them such as bloated mice and obese dolly.

Conclusion

Green Sea turtles are rapidly decreasing in numbers everyday and cloning is not an effective process to prevent this from occurring. Green sea turtles are exposed to over-exportation and killed for their skin, shells eggs and meat. As well as being accidentally caught In fishermen gear and nets. Some Malaysian biologists have been planning to clone leatherback turtles although it is unlikely to succeed as no reptile has been know to be cloned. Some scientists have decided that the errors that occur are unexpected when using cloning reprogramming, which can alter the organisms genes which effects the growth and development potentially killing the clone. Improvements to possibly prevent this from happening often and having a successful outcome could be using a different cloning technique for example gene cloning could potentially be a more effective process to clone. As it will guarantee a longer life span with less ethical problems. Limitations to this would be the embryo of the animal will not develop into a health clone and defects in vital organs.

Reference list

Entertainment, S. (2018). online Seaworld.org. Available at: https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/sea-turtles/conservation-and-research Accessed 16 Aug. 2018.

Fox News. (2018). Malaysia May Clone Endangered Sea Turtles. online Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/07/12/malaysia-may-clone-endangered-sea-turtles.html Accessed 16 Aug. 2018.

Jabr, F. (2018). Will Cloning Ever Save Endangered Animals?. online Scientific American. Available at: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cloning-endangered-animals/

Learn.genetics.utah.edu. (2018). The History of Cloning. online Available at: https://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/clonezone/ Accessed 31 Jul. 2018.

New Scientist. (2018). Cloned animals meet early deaths. online Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1903-cloned-animals-meet-early-deaths/ Accessed 8 Aug. 2018.

OpenMind. (2018). The Limits of Cloning – OpenMind. online Available at: https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/en/the-limits-of-cloning/ Accessed 16 Aug. 2018.

Science | AAAS. (2018). Cloned Mice Die Young. online Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2002/02/cloned-mice-die-young Accessed 8 Aug. 2018.

Understanding Animal Research. (2018). Animal cloning | Understanding Animal Research | Understanding Animal Research. online Available at: http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/animals/areas-research/animal-cloning/

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