Answer 1 Leadership

Answer 1
Leadership: –
Leadership is the ability of an individual to persuade other individuals to behave in a particular way, willingly. In organisations, leadership entails motivating employees to do their jobs using the skills and commitment that is required for the attainment of desired results.

Some reasons why leadership is important for any organisational development are:-
Leadership leads to effective planning: – leaders provide a structured approach to generate a plan of action to achieve organisational goals. Planning helps employees to identify, understand and contribute in achieving defined objectives.

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Leaders inspire and motivate: – If a leader shows commitment towards organisational goals. He/she provides motivation to the employees to perform at a high level.

Leaders encourage new ideas: – Leaders encourage employees to contribute and discuss new ideas by creating a positive environment.

Leaders provide clear vision: – Leaders are the connection between the organisation and the employee. Leaders communicate a clear vision of the organisation to the employees, so that employees remain focused and do not stray from their roles and responsibility.

Leaders build Employee Morale: – High employee morale signifies wilful dedication of employees towards their work. Leaders build employee morale to maintain their dedication and helps in encouraging them to perform and achieve the goals
Leaders Improve Employee – Organisation Relationship: – An effective relationship between a leader and employees in an organisation validates that employees are considered valuable and integral to the organisation.

Leaders help in Management of Crisis: – During difficult times, leaders can remind employees of their achievements and encourage them to define achievable goals.

Leadership Theories:-
The three main leadership theories are:-
Trait Theories
Behavioural Theories
Contingency Theories
Trait Theories: –
The trait theory of leadership is an early assumption that leaders are born and due to this belief, those that possess the correct qualities and traits are better suited to leadership. This theory often identifies behavioural characteristics that are common in leaders.

Trait theory of leadership is one of the first academic theories of leadership and attempts to answer why some people are good leaders and others are not.

Some of the most common leadership traits identified, are:
Knowledge of the business.

Initiative
Tenacity
Energy
Good cognitive skills and capable of using good judgement and decisions
Flexibility
Creativity
Charisma
Emotional intelligence
Drive and motivation to succeed
Confidence
Honesty and integrity
Traditionally, the most ardent versions of trait theory see these “leadership characteristics” as innate, and as such, some people are seen to be ‘born leaders’, due to their psychological makeup.

Behavioural Theories:-
In Behavioural Theories of Leadership the emphasis is on the actual behaviour and action of the leaders and not on their traits or characteristics. In other words, this approach emphasises that strong leadership is the result of effective role behaviour. This theory emphasises the point that the favourable behaviour of a leader provides greater satisfaction to the followers and they recognise him as their leader. However, one limitations of this approach is that a particular behaviour and action of a leader may be relevant and effective at a particular point of time while at another, it may be irrelevant and ineffective. Thus, in this approach, the ‘time’ factor which is a vital element has not been considered.

As per behavioural theories, leadership can be categorised into two types.

Production Oriented: – This leadership behaviour is also referred to as concern for the production or task focused leadership. Production oriented behaviour typically involves acting to get a task done.

Employee Oriented: – This leadership behaviour focuses on supporting employees in getting their task done. Such leader empathises towards his employees needs and involves them in decision making processes.

Contingency Theories:-
According to contingency theories, no leadership style is suited for all situations. Fred Fielder’s Theory stated that leadership effectiveness is a function of two variables:-
The Task or interpersonal relationship that motivates a leader
The Situation
The tasks or interpersonal relationships that motivate a leader can be assessed with the help of a Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale. To use this scale, the leaders recall a co-worker they work with, to rate him/her on a series of eight-point bipolar adjectives such as friendly-unfriendly, pleasant-unpleasant son and so forth. Higher LPC scores signify more positive descriptions of the least preferred co-worker. Low LPC scores signify more negative description of the co-worker.
Fieldler stated that, workers with high LPC scores are motivated to maintain harmonious interpersonal relationships while workers with low LPC scores are driven to perform better and focus on interpersonal skills.

According to the contingency theory, there are two type of leaders:-
Task Oriented Leaders: – These leaders usually see their LPCs more negatively, resulting in lower score. Low LPC leaders are effective in organising a group to get tasks and projects done.

Relationship Oriented Leaders: – These leaders usually see their LPCs more positively, resulting in higher score. High LPC leaders focuses on building interpersonal relationships, while avoiding and managing conflict.

Answer 2
Introduction of Informal Groups
Informal Groups are the groups formed by employees of an organization that is created under no directive from management but simply because group members have a shared common interest. The group may focus on issues that run counter to organizational norms or may exist to improve functions of the workplace or morale.

Informal groups can classified as:-
Primary Group
Primary group can be classified as a group wherein informal communication, intimate interaction and cooperation in between members takes place. A group of friends can be taken as an example of primary group.

Interest Group
Interest group can be classified as a group where members who have common interest like sports, politics or social awareness.

Friendship Group
It is a group of individuals who share some common characteristics like age, gender, religion
Reference Group
It is a more influential group that shapes the behaviour of its members; therefore, it has great significance in the study of organisational behaviour.

The communication model followed in the Informal Groups can be classified as
Single Strand Model
It is an informal group model where one individual communicates with another individual through other members.

Gossip Model
In this model a person transfers a piece of information about a person to as many people as possible.

Probability Model
In this model, an individual communicates with each other in a random manner.

Cluster Model
It is a model where the individuals communicate with only with the individuals, who are trust worthy according to them.

Now coming to the problem related to Rozy, for that we need to understand the group process. After the formation of group, it is assumed that stable relationships, bond of intimacy, appropriate behaviours for individual members have been established and this results in a definite structure of the group along with some important processes.
Some of the important dynamics of the groups are:-
Roles: – It is the positions assigned to different members of a group. Now, there are various other dimensions of roles, which are.

Identity: – It can be defined as the different attitudes or behaviours that are specific to a role.

Expectation: – It is the level of achievement that an individual aspires to reach to fulfil his/her role and responsibilities.

Perception: – Perception is the pre assumed way of thoughts of an individual about how he/she should react in a particular situation.

Conflict: – Conflict represents the difference in perceived and actual role.

Ambiguity: – It is the confusion between the perceived role and actual role of any member of the group.

Norms :- Norms are the acceptable standards or expectations shared by group members, and norms may differ from one group to other
Status: – It indicates a prestige grading, position or rank of the members of the group.

Free Rider Tendency: – It is a group phenomenon in which individual members reduce their individual efforts and contribution as the group grows.

Group Cohesiveness: – It is the degree to which group members feel connected to each other and be a part of the group as a whole.

Now coming back to Rozy, as it is already mentioned she developed some interpersonal and intergroup conflicts with some powerful members of the group. That is a clear example of Identity conflict, Expectation and status conflict.

Rozy must take care that informal groups are not only beneficial for members but can have dysfunctional aspects for members and organisations too. They may create the following problems for the members and organization:
1. Negative Attitude of Informal Leaders: The informal leader may turn out to be a troubleshooter for the organization. In order to increase his influence, he may work against the policies of management and manipulate the behaviour of his followers. Thus, he can be source of conflict between the management and the workers.

2. Conformity: The informal group exerts strong pressure on its members for conformity. The members may become so loyal to their group that following the group norms becomes a part of their life. This implies that members become subject to wilful control of the group leader who may lead the group toward selfish ends.

3. Resistance to Change: Informal groups generally have a tendency to resist change. Change requires group members to make new adjustments and acquire new skills. But groups want to maintain status quo. Sometimes, groups react violently to the proposed changes being brought by the management. This creates obstructions in implementing new ideas and thus organization’s survival and growth.

4. Rumour: Informal communication may give rise to rumours. This is not desirable from organization’s point of view. Rumour originates for a number of reasons. A more frequent cause is employee’s anxiety and insecurity because of poor communication in the organization.

5. Role Conflict: Every member of the informal group is also a member of the formal organization. Sometimes, there may be role conflict because what the informal group requires of a member is just the opposite of what is expected of him by the formal organization
Answer 3A.

Contribution of Individual Behaviour in Organization
Individual behaviour is the response of an individual towards an action, environment, person or stimulus. Individual behaviour not only affects the personal life of an individual, but it also impacts his/her professional life. If an individual has a positive attitude, he/she tries to seek the solution for an organisational problem, while an individual with a negative attitude focuses only on the severity of the problem instead of identifying the solution. Thus, it is important for the manager of an organisation to understand the individual behaviour of the employees working with him to delegate job responsibilities so as to obtain the best outcome.
As, Attitude is one of the factors affecting behaviour of any individual:-
Attitude: – It refers to the tendency of an individual to respond in a specific set of situations. According to various psychologists, the attitude of any individual includes three main components, which are
Cognitive Component: It is an evaluative component that is developed in an individual on the basis of his past experiences. This component plays an important role in developing a perception about an incident before it happens.

Affective Component: It is a component that is responsible for building up the emotional setup of an individual. The affective component expresses an individual likes or dislikes.

Behavioural Component: It is a component that changes the way a person behaves in a situation. Example, individual that are having negative feelings and dislike for the organisation may show irritation and frustration on others.

Now, as an individual’s behaviour also depends upon the perception of the things that motivate him or not.

Perception: – It is important as it influences individual behaviour. Individuals need to be aware of the perceptual distortion coming in their way of judging other individuals in the organisation to be able to manage the perception process. It is very necessary that managers and employees are conscious of managing the perceptual process that eventually determine their attitude and behaviour.
In order to help and manage the perceptual process in favour of employees and organization a few ways are mentioned below:-
Individuals should have high self-awareness. To manage the perception process, an individual should be aware when and he is inappropriately distorting a situation because of perceptual errors.

Individual should be empathetic.Individuals should attempt to understand the point of view of the target so as to avoid forming notions on the basis of how others perceive it.

Individuals should support their perception through information from different sources.

It is normal for humans to form perception of the people around them, however, they should attempt to confirm personal impressions before drawing a conclusion.

Individuals should rise above personal impressions and should avoid common perceptual distortions.

Answer 3 BPersonality: – It refers to the set of traits possessed by an individual that makes him distinct from others. It determines the behaviour of an individual.

In the 1970s, two groups of personality researchers independently came to the conclusion that most personality traits can be boiled down into five broad categories, now known as the Big Five. They are:
Extroversion: This refers to the degree to which a person is outgoing and derives energy from being around with other people.

Conscientiousness: This refers to the goal orientation of a person.

Emotional Stability: It relates to how a person reacts in a stressful or demanding situation.

Agreeableness: This refers to the extent to which a person is outgoing and tolerant.

Openness to Experience: It refers to the degree to which a person seeks new experiences and think creatively about the future.

The understanding of the personality of employees can help in organisation’s efficiency and effectiveness. The primary goal of every organization is to create surplus profit. Profit is a measure of surplus of amount incurred over income over expense. To accomplish this goal effectively the management must establish an environment in which people can work productively. And workforce demographics are strongly co-related with productivity and output. The choice of occupation is dependent on personality type. Personality is positively associated with turnover intentions. Differences in job satisfaction occur due to personality. Possession of certain personality characteristics is associated with the choice of occupations, and individuals not possessing these characteristics are more likely to exhibit low job satisfaction.

Take note of the personality traits you need before hiring.

Before you hire for a new role, you’ll probably put together a job description. This helps you to understand what kind of person you’re looking for: what skills and experience they’ll have, and what they’ll be able to bring to your company.

Look for personalities that will fit into and compliment your company culture.

Understanding the personality traits that suit the role you’re hiring for is important, but how personalities fit together can make a big difference as well. Working out the personality traits most suited to your company’s culture can help you to keep an eye out for them and spot people who will fit in more easily.

Pair new employees up with team members who suit their personality type.

When new employees come on board its fairly standard for an existing employee to show them the ropes. If you’re buddying up new employees for a while, taking personality types into consideration could make your employee on boarding process smoother.

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