A Review on Optimization Techniques of DG Allocation for Minimization of Power Losses in Radial Distributed System Navleenpreet Kaur1

A Review on Optimization Techniques of DG Allocation for Minimization of Power Losses in Radial Distributed System Navleenpreet Kaur1, Rajni Bala2 1Research Scholar, 2Assistant Professor B.B.S.B.E.C, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India
Abstract—Any moderate electricity generation organization that distributes electric power to a location close to the consumer load center than central station generation is called Distributed Generation (DG).The performance of active power system network can be enhanced by the optimal position and size of DG units. In power system, in appropriate placement of DG would not only become the reason for increased power or energy losses, but it can also put the operations of the system at risk. Therefore, to increase the reliability and stability in power systems, the optimal allocation of DG sources is essential. An overview is provided in this paper for different technologies implemented for recognizing optimal location and capacity of DG units to make best use of the advantages of DG units in the system network. In this paper, various DG allocation methods are studied as per their used optimization approaches, types of DG, objectives and constraints. Index Terms—Distributed Generation (DG), optimization technique, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization
I. INTRODUCTION he term DG (Distributed Generation) refers to the use of moderate electric power generators disseminated within the distribution network level, whether situated on the utility system near consumers or at an inaccessible site not linked to the power grid 1. DG technologies have high proficiency, e.g. 40 to 55% for fuel cells, compared to 28 to 35% for oldfashioned huge central power generators 5. With an ever growing load demand, the current power distribution network is frequently being faced. This increasing load is causing into improved burden and decreased voltage 1. The distinctive feature of distribution network is that the voltage at nodes diminishes if moved away from substation. This reduction in voltage is generally because of inadequate amount of reactive power. It may lead to voltage breakdown even in certain industrial area precarious loading. Thus reactive compensation is requisite to recover the voltage profile and to evade voltage collapse 1-2. As compared to transmission levels, the X/R ratio for distribution levels is low, that causes high power damages and a drop in voltage magnitude along with radial distribution lines 1- 3. It is well recognized that loss in a distribution networks are
considerably high as compared to that in a transmission networks. Such significant losses have a straight influence on the financial problems and overall efficacy of distribution services. The requirement of enhancing the complete efficiency of power delivery has forced the power utilities to minimize the losses at distribution level. Many arrangements can be worked out to diminish these losses such as network reconfiguration, shunt capacitor placement, distributed generator placement etc. 1-3. The distributed generators supply fragment of active power demand, in this manner decreasing the current and MVA in lines. Installation of distributed generators on distribution network will provide the advantage of reducing energy losses, peak demand losses and enhancement in the networks voltage profile, firmness of the networks and power factor of the networks.
Table I. DG category based on capacity
Categories Ratings Micro-distributed generation ~1 W < 5kW Small- distributed generation 5kW< 5 MW Medium- distributed generation 5MW