Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary- Page 4
2. Introduction- Page 4
3. Methodology- Pages 4-5
4. Case study Material 1 Failure/Detoriation example Hebel Panel fixed with metal framing work- Pages 5-10
– Material Name- Page 5
– Location- Page 5
– Problem- Page 5
– Photos and their Description- Pages 5-7
– Technical investigation of failure of Material- Page 9
– Good Building Practice- Page 10
– Remediation Work- Pages 10-11
– Properties- Page 11
– Conclusion- Page 11
5. Case Study Material 2 Failure/Detoriation example Cementitious based waterproofing membrane on concrete roof slab – Pages 12-17
– Material Name- Page 12
– Location- page 12
– Problem- Page 12
– Photos and their Description- Pages 12-15
– Construction Details- Page 15
– Properties- Page 16
– Reason of Failures- Page 16
– Good Building Practice- Page 16
– Remediation Work- Page 17
– Conclusion- Page 17
6. Case Study Material 3 Excellent example Brickwork in Brick Veneer system- Pages 18-20
– Material Name- Page 18
– Location- Page 18
– Photos and their Description- Page 18
– Advantages and Good Properties of Brick and Brick Veneer System- Pages 19-20
– Overall Evaluation and Recommendations- Page 20
7. Bibliography- Page 21
While studying Construction Ecology a subject of Construction Management degree in University of Newcastle, opportunity have been given to us to identify real scenario of two construction materials that have failed/deteriorated. This report is based on site investigations, discussions with professionals, understanding properties of materials, and its appropriate use for specific purpose, problem using in conjunction with other materials, location of use of materials including weather effects.
The Report will highlight merits and demerits of 3 building materials, technical details of construction with sketches, photos with notes describing problems, reason of failures, good building practice of construction, rectification / prevention methods to avoid further damages to other adjoining building elements. An excellent material with good properties and long durability when used in combination with other building materials makes excellent strong construction details which are also explained in further detail with annotations and sketches.
Detail assessment and investigation of 3 building materials have been carried out look below:
Material 1: External Hebel Panel fixed to metal framing work.
Material 2: Cementitious based waterproofing membrane on concrete roof slab.
• Identify materials which have been prematurely failed.
• Review the location and use of materials to ensure that they are truly fit for purpose.
• Understand technical details of construction of that material which is used in combination with other materials.
• Investigate reason why and how these materials have failed on particular construction details in that location.
• Possible damage or deterioration to other associated building material because of failure of this material.
• Understand if use of that material was right for that purpose and could have been avoided by modification in construction.
• Identify solution and remediation work used to prevent further damage to material or other building element.
Material 3: Brickwork in Brick Veneer system.
• Identify a Material on existing building which performs best fit for purpose.
• Review properties of best material and demonstrate how good properties contribute to durability of construction.
• Construction details of material used along with other building material for widely used building construction methods.
• Advantage of using good materials in construction details and demonstrate how complete construction details is an effective way of building durable construction.
4. Case Study of Material 1
Material: External Hebel panel fixed to external Metal framing.
Location: Unit G04, 4 storey apartment building at 549 Liverpool Road Strathfield NSW.
Problem: Unit G04 bedroom was flooded during heavy rain storm event and water penetrated from the external planter box through the saturated Hebel panel into the inside of units, inside carpet and plasterboard wall got damaged. Hebel as external façade material that failed and saturated with water, joints of Hebel got leaked affecting water tightness of external façade.
Carpet Bedroom 1 of unit G04 affected with water penetrated through external Hebel wall.
Carpet and Wardrobe of Bedroom 2 of Unit G04 damaged with rain water from Hebel wall.
Figure 1 Typical External Hebel panel and Metal framing work as per CSR guideline.
Figure 2:Rectification work carried out in existing Hebel wall system adjoining to planter box.
Joint where rain water penetrated between Hebel panel and 50mm external concrete hob.
Hebel panel and planter box sealed with waterproofing and Z flashing installed at bottom of cladding cut 300mm high than bottom of planter.
Ponding test carried out external of Hebel façade wall in planter box.
Block wall with 50mm gap against building wall have been removed and planter box and external Hebel wall have been waterproofed with polyurethane membrane and epoxy primer.
Technical investigation of failure of Material
Reason 1: Water was penetrating from top of planter box through gaps in angle and staying between gap of 50mm between planter box block wall and external façade wall of building. There was not any relief holes and water was rising above 50mm high external hob level and entering through joint between Hebel and external hob, week joints between Hebel panels and entering in cavity of Hebel system. Hebel panel is porous material and very less resistance to moisture and start leaching out water inside unit.
Reason 2 : Water was penetrating through week caulking joints in external aluminium cladding and staying between aluminium cladding and Hebel panel and rising between as relief vent slots of cladding that was clogged with soil in planter box. Water filled between cladding and external Hebel wall penetrated between joint of Hebel and external Hebel panel system.
Reason 3: Waterproofing of planter between concrete slab of planter and Hebel failed
reason of failures of material contributed by poor construction detail around External Hebel wall construction includes:
a. Hebel panel wall as porous material is not right material to be used against planter boxes with water movements
b. External slab should have 150mm set down compare to FFL of units instead of 100mm concrete hob outside habitable units on ground floor to safeguard units against possible water egress.
c. 9m long planter box was built with only two drain points not sufficient to cater heavy storm event
d. 800mm Planter box block wall was built against external building wall with only 50mm gap in between and no drainage point to release any water penetrating in 50mm cavity.
e. Aluminium cladding was installed on external face of Hebel extended to bottom of plater box wall with relief vent holes clogged with planter box soil
Good building practice of building planter box outside Hebel panel façade
a. All planter box walls should be built in reinforced concrete at least 300mm away from external Hebel wall with floor waste in 300mm space
b. Hebel walls should not be penetrating inside planter box due to poor moisture resistivity of Hebel Panel
c. External podium and planter area exposed to weather should be 150mm set down to internal unit areas
d. External Aluminium cladding should not be extended inside plater box and should be finished above planter box with relief vent holes
e. Enough drainage points should be provided in planter box against building walls
Remediation works in existing Hebel façade wall construction
f. Block wall against with 50mm gap to external Hebel façade wall removed to stop water holding in 50mm gap outside external building walls
g. Soil and plants removed from planter box and to be replaced by pots and plants in planter box to see water movement to drains within planter
h. Aluminium cladding cut short 300mm above bottom of planters and Z flashing installed with 10mm gap between cladding and Hebel wall to get any water including condensation water drips out from behind cladding.
i. 5 Additional overflow spouts have been installed at bottom of planters as extra precaution to drain storm water in heavy rain event.
j. Week joints between Hebel and 50mm external Hebel and joints between Hebel panels sealed with polyurethane caulking
k. Complete planter box was waterproofed including exposed Hebel panel with epoxy primer and two coats of poly waterproofing.
l. Ponding and flood test to be carried out to make sure planter box and façade is watertight before carrying out rectification work inside unit.
Properties of Hebel Material
• The unique combination of thermal resistance, thermal mass, acoustic and fire properties ( Fire resistance level up to 240 mins) make building with Hebel a smart choice for meeting Australia’s building regulations. For commercial, residential and industrial construction, the Building Code of Australia (BCA) details regulations covering energy efficiency, fire resistance and acoustics, across a broad range of building classes.
• Lightweight construction of Hebel power panel helps streamline the construction process each day as there is less to clean up due to reduced clutter on site. The product also helps to produce a cleaner, safer work environment.
4. (blogger, 2017)
Hebel is good light weight non-load bearing fire rated wall material but careful design consideration for use of Hebel panel based on purpose and location of Hebel panel is advisable as Hebel is less resistance to moisture.
5. Case Study of Material 2
Material 2: Cementitious based waterproofing membrane on concrete slab
Location : Unit 304 under concrete waterproofed roof terraces, 4 storey apartment building at 549 Liverpool Road Strathfield NSW
Problem: Unit 304 on level 3 bedroom and bathroom plater board ceiling was affected with mould due to minor water leak from waterproofed concrete roof terrace above unit.
Unit 304 bedroom ceiling affected by mould and water leak from roof terrace.
Waterproofing lain on concrete failed because of crack in substrate concrete.
Masterflow 400 grout on concrete slab to avoid ponding of water failed leading cracks in Waterproofing membrane.
2. (n/a, n.d.)
Failure of water proofing membrane due to cracks in substrates surface.
Concrete was not poured for concrete roof slab with required fall and some area of concrete slab needs to be topped with Masterflow 400 solvent-free fast curing, filler extended grout.
One coat of primer and two coats of Crystoflex cementitious waterproofing was applied on concrete slab and protected with UV rated trafficable membrane.
Properties of Material:
Crystoflex is two-part waterproofing membrane comprising of a liquid component of selected polymers and a powder component of selected cements, fillers and aggregates. When mixed together to form a brushable or rollable slurry, it provides a strong, hydrostatic pressure resistant, flexible waterproofing membrane. Crystoflex complies with AS/NZS 4020:2002.
Reason of failures of material contributed by poor construction detail:
Limitations of Crystoflex is through it is flexible but can withstand only normal building movement but it has limited elongation and hence will not tolerate excessive movement or cracking of the substrate. It is recommended that Cracks and gaps must be independently sealed and waterproofed.
Roof Concrete slab was not poured with proper fall towards flanged collar floor waste. Instead of using concrete topping Masterflow 400 grout was used to create fall which is not ideal material to be used externally exposed to rain and heavy UV rays. Waterproofing applied on subsurface of grout cracked in exposed weather which ultimately damage layer of waterproofing membrane.
Some areas of concrete roof slab appears to develop cracks and waterproofing laid on concrete subsurface was damaged due to crack in subsurface. When placed concrete typically contains more water than is required for hydration of the cement. As the concrete hardens and starts to lose the excess water, shrinkage begins. cracking in concrete depends upon a number of things; rate and amount of drying, drying shrinkage, tensile strength, tensile strain, creep, elasticity, degree of restraint, settlement of building and movement in structure and other factors.
3. (n/a, n.d.)
Good Building practice for roof waterproofing:
a. Concrete for roof should be poured with proper fall towards SPS flanged special floor waste for roof area.
b. Two coats of Polyurethane based flexible waterproofing membrane and epoxy primer should be used high elasticity on terraces to avoid in crack of substrate penetrating through waterproofing membrane
c. One coat of Waterproofing on concrete surface before any required concrete topping is good building practice as if top coat and topping fails waterproofing underneath topping will protect roof from any potential water leak.
d. Dish should be created 300 mm around floor waste and waterproofing should be tucked inside floor waste and floor waster should be lower than concrete not ot have any ponding around floor waste.
a. All cracked Masterflow grout topping should be removed and cleaned.
b. Cleaned surface of concrete roof slab to be inspected for any visual crack which. should be caulked and sealed with waterproofing bandage over.
c. Same cementitious based waterproofing and epoxy primer to be applied on subsurface of concrete.
d. Any required fall to concrete should be laid with concrete topping not less than 35mm in thickness.
e. Final layer of waterproofing covered with UV coat to be applied.
f. Water ponding test to be carried out before painting moulded ceiling with mould remover and mould resistance paint.
Waterproofing is considered to have major defects as it falls under statutory warranties of 6 years of builders as it can lead damage to appearance and structure of building. Careful design consideration is required for roof terraces to use more flexible polyurethane membrane with UV coat on clean and crack free concrete poured with proper fall.
6. CASE STUDY OF MATERIAL 3
Material 3: Excellent material Bricks and brick Veneer system
Location: 7 Matlock Place Glenwood
This material is an example of an excellent building Material because it was built approximately in the year 1998 and now approximately 20 years later this material is still withstanding up in good condition this is due to its structurally sound and aesthetically appealing characteristics.
Figure 3 Section of Brick Veneer System wall
Advantages and good properties of Bricks:
• Cost-effective (Raw materials substance is easily readily available).
• Tough and durable.
• Bricks Compressive strength force remains as being considered as a commonly used building material hence the reason why its properties allow it to remain to be considered as a good enough for ordinary normally conventional construction works.
• Various orientations, adjustments, and size proportions provide and as a result of this they produce different surface textures.
• Extremely minimal sustaining and maintenance expense is required to build these resources for greater usage and suitability to the user which utilize this as a building material when constructing large things e.g. like an 89-storey apartment block.
• Demolition regarding brick and masonry structures is pretty easy, less short in terms of time-consumption capacity rate and hence therefore commonly usually considered as being an economic material used for constructing different types of buildings and houses.
• Environmentally Sustainable, Durable and Recyclable.
• Bricks are profoundly known by every human being to be considered as containing a high level of fire resistance.
• They create minimal environmental pollution and deterioration related uses throughout the manufacturing production process of the development of these resources.
5. (Jamal, 2017)
Advantages of Brick Veneer Wall system:
• Each air gap space timeframe in regards to space within this brick slab exterior as well as interior veneer wall.
• Hence the reason being for why the structural element that is present in this type of construction system is responsible for acting as an effective drainage system.
• Weep hole openings are strictly being provided towards the ground floor this is done to ensure that any excessive amount of water (H2o) liquid has been able to be penetrated and filtered closely directed tightly held closely nearby to the external surface of the building and not maintained to be kept inside.
• Each cavity hole pit can stay remaining insulated because this highly increases some properties and obtaining certain characteristics like the thermal performance of the wall.
• Some architectural structural components are able to be easily stay constructed created first and this also allows the remainder of the construction to proceed remaining left unharmed.
• This brick veneer system can be developed and completed simultaneously.
• This is a key factor as it saves money funds on the amount of construction time and tradie labour force required and needed in order to complete building this building.
• Any standard brick veneer wall system that this will weigh up much less than a solid wall.
• Since the weight is light and less, the significant cost of the foundation and structural support construction can be easily maintained and reduced in a stylish unexpected manner.
Overall Evaluation and Recommendation:
From the review of 3 case studies described above including 2 examples of building materials that have failed/ deteriorated prematurely and 1 long lasting durable material, it hence thoroughly justified that Bricks/Brick Veneer System has got excellent building properties which is durable and fit for purpose even in severe weather condition. Hence it is widely used in the construction industry for many years and it still remains being the best choice of builders.
6. (n/a, 2015)
1. n/a, n. (2007). Product data sheet Crystoflex. Pdf n/a: n/a, p.4. Available at: https://www.totalwaterproofingsupplies.com.au/files/tds-msds/1359608304Crystoflex.pdf Accessed 20 March. 2018.
2. n/a, n. Masterflow 400 Fast curing, high strength, flowable epoxy resin grout Pdf (p. 2). Mumbai India: BASF lndia Limited Construction Chemicals Division. Retrieved from https://assets.master-builders-solutions.basf.com/Shared%20Documents/PDF/English%20(Bangladesh)/basf-MasterFlow-400-tds.pdf
Accessed 03 June. 2018.
3. n/a, n. Cracks in Concrete. Retrieved from https://www.holcim.com.au/products-and-services/tools-faqs-and-resources/do-it-yourself-diy/cracks-in-concrete
Accessed 11 March. 2018.
4. blogger, W. (2017). Pros and Cons of Hebel Wall Panels. Retrieved from http://www.wabca.com.au/blog/pros-and-cons-of-hebel-wall-panels
Accessed 05 March. 2018.
5. Jamal, H. (2017). Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Bricks in Construction | Uses ; Applications. Retrieved from https://www.aboutcivil.org/bricks-advantages-disadvantages-uses.html
Accessed 01 June. 2018.
6. n/a, n. (2015). Brick Veneer Construction Pdf (p. 2). n/a: n/a. Retrieved from http://www.residentialreports.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Brick-Veener-Wall-Construction.pdf
Accessed 26 February. 2018.