1.2 Statement of the problem
“The objective of the teaching of writing in foreign language is to become learners to obtain the abilities the need to produce written text like to those an educated person would be expected to be able to produce in their own language” (Ur, 1991.p.162). Ur point out learners should engage in activities to learn writing skill. As teaching writing through dictogloss engaged learners in activities it is a preferable way of practicing the use of grammar, punctuation spelling, and vocabulary in writing (Wajnryb, 1990; Jacobs and Small, 2003). Additionally, using dictogloss technique to teach writing help the learner to internalize the content of passage remember few phrases and lexical items as a key word to reconstruct a text in their own words (Brown, 2004).Likewise, the reconstruction stage of dictogloss technique facilitates the students to be able to reconstruct a dictated-text by using their own language (Ratnaningsih, 2016). Thus, dictogloss is an integrated skills technique for language learning in which students work together to create a reconstructed version of a text read to them by their teacher. This technique of teaching writing also provides the content words to the students and has some stages that facilitate the pupils to learn writing skill.
Furthermore, Nunan (1991, p.28) assessed that dictogloss technique provides to the learner a useful bridge between bottom-up and top-down understanding of the learner. In the first instance, learners are primarily concerned with identifying individual elements in the text a bottom-up strategy in the small group discussion use top down strategies. Hence, this technique helps the learners to integrate background knowledge and the clues given during the dictation in EFL class in reconstruction of the text. Besides, Brown (2003) stated dictogloss is intensive types of writing that goes beyond the fundamental of imitate writing and the learners internalize the content of the passage and remember a few phrase and lexical items and recreate the story using their own words.
It is generally believed that using dictogloss technique in EFL class writing lesson engaged the learners in tasks. Hence, in dictogloss technique, which is different from dictation technique, learners work together and engaged in task to create a reconstructed version of a text read to them by their teacher using their own words. Concerning this Qin (2008) Jin (2013), Romario (2016) & Retnowaty,(2011 who made a research on dictogloss technique concluded that EFL learners improve their sentence writing in skill. Result of the researchers showed that the EFL learner significantly benefited from the lesson in writing skill in general and in sentences writing level. Thus, dictogloss technique is a powerful technique for learning the mechanics of writing and sentences constructions in general.
Furthermore, Haregewein (2008, p.66) dictogloss technique of language teaching represents a change from traditional dictation method of language teaching to integrated way. It is also an instrumental to integrate grammar with writing skills. Likewise, Mesret (2012, p.251) also stated dictogloss is task based technique that combines opportunities of student interaction to generate ideas for writing. Despite this, in practice dictogloss in writing class room has not yet received enough attention.
As far as the experience of the researcher concerned and as an English teacher in the study area witnessed that most grade nine students could not meaningfully write paragraph. Although a number of scholars suggested that the use of dictogloss is considered as an essential technique to improve students’ writing skills but, using dictogloss in writing lesson has not yet received enough attention in EFL class in Ethiopian context in general and in the study area in. Besides, as far as the researcher knowledge there are no studies that have been conducted on the effectiveness of using dictoglos technique to enhance paragraph writing in Ethiopian context.
Although much has been written in the literature about the effectiveness of dictogloss to teach writing there is still no agreement on scholars whether dictogloss technique improves students’ writing skill or not. Regarding to this, Setiana (2012) conduct research on effect of dictogloss on writing and the finding indicated that dictogloss did not improve students’ writing ability significantly. The result of hypothesis testing showed the experimental group did not get better score than the controlled class students and Setiana conclude dictogloss did not improve students writing skill.
Because of above stated ideas the researcher conducted an experimental study to examine the effects of the using dictogloss on improving students’ writing skill in terms of paragraph writing, and assessed their attitude towards dictogloss on improving their writing skill in terms of paragraph writing at Addishehu secondary School in the case of grade nine.
By and large scholars assure us that dictogloss technique make EFL learners to be active and reflective during the learning process &learning is effective when dictogloss is implemented in the teaching of writing. The researcher assumed that the benefits of using dictogloss technique in writing classrooms had not received enough attention in teaching English as a foreign language in Ethiopian context similarly in the present study area. Besides, researcher findings like Setiana (2012) shown that dictogloss technique was not effective technique to enhance writing skill. Hence, the researcher raised the following questions: