1.1 OVERVIEW OF LATHE BED Alathe is aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_tool t _self o Machine toolmachine toolwhich rotates the work-piece on itsHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_of_rotation t _self o Axis of rotationaxisto perform various operations such asHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutting t _self o Cuttingcutting,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanding t _self o Sandingsanding,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knurling t _self o Knurlingknurling, HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling t _self o Drillingdrilling, orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deformation_(engineering) t _self o Deformation (engineering)deformation,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facing_(machining) t _self o Facing (machining)facing,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning t _self o Turningturning, with tools that are applied to the work-piece to create an object which hasHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotational_symmetry t _self o Rotational symmetrysymmetryabout anHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_of_rotation t _self o Axis of rotationaxis of rotation. -Fig 1.1 Lathe Machine Lathes are used inHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodturning t _self o Woodturningwoodturning,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalworking t _self o Metalworkingmetalworking,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_spinning t _self o Metal spinningmetal spinning,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_spraying t _self o Thermal sprayingthermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working. Lathes can be used to shapeHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery t _self o Potterypottery, the best-known design being theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potter27s_wheel t _self o Potters wheelpotters wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce mostHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_of_revolution t _self o Solid of revolutionsolids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helix t _self o Helixhelices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The work-piece is usually held in place by either one or twocentres, at least one of which can typically be moved horizontally to accommodate varying work-piece lengths. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collet t _self o Colletcollet, or to aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lathe_faceplate t _self o Lathe faceplatefaceplate, using clamps orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_(engineering) t _self o Dog (engineering)dogs. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe includeHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlestick t _self o Candlestickcandlestickholders,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_barrel t _self o Gun barrelgun barrels,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cue_stick t _self o Cue stickcue sticks,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furniture l Table t _self o Furnituretablelegs,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowl_(vessel) t _self o Bowl (vessel)bowls,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baseball_bat t _self o Baseball batbaseball bats, musical instruments (especiallyHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodwind t _self o Woodwindwoodwind instruments),HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crankshaft t _self o Crankshaftcrankshafts, andHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camshaft t _self o Camshaftcamshafts. 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF LATHE MACHINE 1.2.1 Parts of lathe machine A lathe may or may not have legs which sit on the floor and elevate the lathe bed to a working height. A lathe may be small and sit on a workbench or table, and not require a stand. Fig 1.2 Components of Lathe Machine Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (althoughHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNC t _self o CNCCNClathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure thatHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarf t _self o Swarfswarf, or chips, falls free of the bed). Woodturning lathes specialized for turning large bowls often have no bed or tail stock, merely a free-standing headstock and a cantilevered tool rest. At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_(tool) t _self o Spindle (tool)spindle. Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interiorHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morse_taper t _self o Morse taperMorse taperon the inboard (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which work-holding accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their outboard (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the work-piece. Fig 1.3a Components on lathe bed Fig 1.3b Components on Lathe Bed Fig 1.3c Components on lathe bed The spindle is driven either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand. In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into variousHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speeds_and_feeds l Spindle_speed t _self o Speeds and feedsspindle speeds. Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift autoHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) t _self o Transmission (mechanics)transmission. Some motors have electronic rheostat-type speed controls, which obviates cone pulleys or gears. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed by undoing a locking nut, sliding it to the required area, and then re-locking it. The tail-stock contains a barrel which does not rotate, but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock spindle. The barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel centre, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible.HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lathe l cite_note-2 t _self2 Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is usually another slide called a compound rest, which provides 2 additional axes of motion, rotary and linear. Atop that sits a tool-post, which holds aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_bit t _self o Tool bitcutting toolwhich removes material from the work-piece. There may or may not be aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadscrew t _self o Leadscrewlead-screw, which moves the cross-slide along the bed. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross-slides, but rather have banjos, which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed. The position of aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banjo_(wood_lathe) t _self o Banjo (wood lathe)banjocan be adjusted by hand no gearing is involved. Ascending vertically from theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banjo_(wood_lathe) t _self o Banjo (wood lathe)banjois a tool-post, at the top of which is a horizontal tool-rest. In woodturning, hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the work-piece. In metal spinning, the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest, and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the work-piece. The bed of the lathe provides the foundation for the whole machine and holds the headstock, tailstock and carriage in alignment. The surfaces of the bed that are finely machined – and upon which the carriage and tailstock slide – are known as ways.Some beds have a gap near the headstock to allow extra-large diameters to be turned. Sometimes the gap is formed by the machined ways stopping short of the headstock, sometimes by a -piece of bed that can be unbolted, removed–and lost.Some very large lathes have a HYPERLINK http//www.lathes.co.uk/harringtonsliding bed where the upper part, on which the carriage and tailstock sit, can be slid along a separate lower part – and so make the gap correspondingly larger or smaller. CHAPTER 2 LETERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview During literature survey, some important journal papers published at different national and international conferences were reviewed. Static and Dynamic analysis related articles published by different project companies are referred. Some standard books are referred during this phase. Some of the important information, knowledge and conclusions are derived from this literature survey to empower the basic fundamentals to carry out Thesis work. 1)Yang Zeqing, Liu Libing, Wangzuojie, Chen Yingshu, Xiao Quanyang has suggested that the maximum deformation of the slide board occurs in the middle of the slide board where the linear motor is placed. The linear motor feed system control model is established based on analysis of high-speed linear feed system control principle, and the linear motor feed system transfer function is established, and servo dynamic stiffness factors are researched, the control parameters of the servo system and actuating mechanism parameters of feed system on the effect of the linear motor servo dynamic stiffness are analyzed using MATLAB software, which provide the reference for determining the control parameters reasonably. The simulation results show that the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are the biggest influence factors on servo dynamic stiffness. The displacement response is reduced under the cutting interference force step inputting, while the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are increased, and the servo dynamic stiffness is increased, the number of system oscillation is also reduced, and the system tends to be stable. 2) S. Syath ABUTHAKEER, P.V. MOHANRAM, G. Mohan KUMAR the results of the FEM analysis conducted through ANSYS software for the conventional lathe bed indicated that the portion of the bed bearing the headstock region suffered the maximum deformation. The bed was then considered for alternate structures and emphases were laid on retaining the existing manufacturing method and hence restrict modifications to only structural redesigning. The static analysis results were once again scrutinized to identify locations where excessive, unnecessary material was present and areas where material mass could be supplanted by rib structures. The presence of such rib structures proved beneficial as they reduced weight. In the above process, twelve different structural combinations were identified and each of them was analyzed under the prevalent conditions. The models along with the results of analyses are presented. From the table 1a and table 1b, it can be observed that two models i.e. Cross and Horizontal Ribs with bionic, vertical ribs with hollow display optimal characteristics. One of these two models, vertical ribs with hollow was taken up for further material redistribution so that the deformation could be reduced to existing levels while reducing only weight as shown in figure 2. The existing and modified model of machine tool bed was then fabricated using the Rapid Prototyping Process. Fig 2.1 changing of lathe bed structure 2.3.1 FEM SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTS FEM simulation was carried out using ANSYS software to analyze both the conventional and the cross and vertical ribs with hollow bed, in terms of static and dynamic characteristics studies. The 3-D models were established in a CAD system, Pro/E Wildfire 5.0, and were imported into ANSYS. The models were then modified or simplified to meet the FEM requirements. The material used was gray cast iron and the material specifications are listed in table 1. All DOFs of bottom surface were restricted and external loads were applied to corresponding positions of bed. Table 1.Material Property MaterialElastic modulusPoisson ratioDensityGray Cast Iron1.1 e50.287200 The modified model has a reduced deformation along with reduction in weight which ultimately increases specific stiffness. Thus the new model proves to be better than the existing model by all means. The maximum displacement of vertical ribs with hollow bed is reduced by about 4.05 with 3.29 mass reduction, leading to the improvement of specific stiffness by 7.77. 3) Ajay Bhardwaj suggested that gray cast iron is the best suitable material for lathe machine. Generally lathe machine are subjected to regular unwanted vibrations. The lathe machine vibrations are dangerous to machining operations. it results in degraded quality on the machined parts, shorter tool life, and unpleasant noise, hence are to be neccesarily damped out. The important characteristics of lathe machine bed for metal cutting are high damping and static stiffness. the unwanted vibrations must be arrested in order to ensure higher accuracy along with productivity. 4) B.V. Subrahmanyam, A. Srinivasa Rao, S.V. Gopala Krishna, CH. Rama Krishna suggested that the Von-Mises stress is higher in lathe machine. they were done static and dynamic analysis of the machine tool structure 5) G. Vrtanoski and V. Dukovski suggested that Without considerable reduction in static performances a significant improvement in damping and Eugene frequencies has been achieved. The superiority of polymer concrete has been demonstrated in the 50 reduction of the weight. Also, the new product development time and the manufacturing cost have been dramatically reduced due to the simplification of the production process. 6) Adib Bin Rashid , Hasibul Shams , Abdur Rashid Tipu , Mohammad Reyad Arefin conducted the experiments on the variation of signal amplitude with respect to number of layers for different combinations of composites. It is observed that when the numbers of layers are increased, the signal amplitude has decreased. The maximum amplitude is obtained when no composite material was used indicating that the presence of composite material decreases the vibration amplitude and increases counter vibration characteristics of the system. This shows that with increase in the plates the damping can be increased but only to a certain limit. Also by analyzing the surface roughness on Surface profilometer it is observed the same result. Hence optimum level of plates is to be decided to profitably damp out the vibrations. 7) S. SYATH ABUTHAKEER, P.V. MOHANRAM, G. MOHAN KUMAR developed Micro-Lathe will contribute to Micro-factory education and Micro-machine domestic production for education, and to prototype FMS for education by combining Micro-Lathe, Micro Milling, Micro grinding, Micro cutting, micro-manipulator, micro-machine tool and Micro-Factory system. Typical E-Glass/Epoxy micro lathe bed was designed and fabricated. Experimental setup was designed and developed for testing of beds. The static deflection characteristics and modal characteristics of beams were found experimentally. The numerical modeling and analysis of beds were done in ANSYS and numerical results were taken and validated against experimental results. Damping and natural frequencies also found for both beds. E-Glass/Epoxy micro lathe bed were found to be best for replacing steel to increase the stiffness of structures. 8) Vitor Antonio Ducatti, Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz, Jos Maria C. Dos Santos have conducted static and dynamic analysis on different material/composites for lathe bed. cast steal (AF) cast iron (FF) fiber-reinforced mortar (AR1, AR2 and AR3), ferro-cement (AA) polymer mortar (AP) reinforced polymer mortar (APA). Static and dynamic tests were carried out on the beds and the results discussed with the aim to substitute the traditional materials, cast iron and cast steel, for the news ones, cement and polymer mortar. Static tests results in fiber-reinforced mortar beds show that first cracking loads range from 40 to 70 kN according to the load application point and fiber content included in the prototype. The maximum resulting displacements are lower than 5 mm. By assuming that the rupture happens in the beginning of the cracking, the fiber-reinforced mortar is able to support loads up to 40 KN. A lathe bed under service is not asked for such high loading. Therefore, as a static stiffness and strength of material point of view, the ferro-cement and fiber-reinforced mortar prototypes are able to perform well as a machine tool lathe bed. Rupture loads from prototypes loaded in the span center have no meaningful changes by comparing results from bending static test before and after cyclic loading. Only the AA prototype presents a rupture stress reduction of 14, while in the others this stress was kept unchanged. It reveals that cyclic loading seems to be no meaningful effect to the fiber-reinforced mortar prototypes. However, to the AP and APA prototypes the rupture loads were practically the same and very larger than (25) that once obtained with ARs prototypes after they have been submitted to cycle loading. From the dynamic behaviour, it is clear the experimental identification of the 6 first vibration modes for almost all prototypes. As expected, the cast steel dominance in terms of higher natural frequencies for all the modes demonstrate that the alternatives materials will be the tendency to reduce them. Modal damping coefficients confirm some literature results related to alternative materials increase global damping when compared to the traditional ones. Of course, these are preliminary results and more research must be done in order to clarify the contributions to the damping coefficient rise for each mode separately. 9) Venkata Ajay Kumar. G1 V. Venkatesh suggested that Based on the configuration principles, the existing bed material was replaced by HM CFRP material shows improve in the static characteristics. Simulations results show that the static characteristics of the machine bed have been improved. Generally Composite materials also offer high specific strength and high specific modulus with less weight in machine tool industries. This composite materials offers high accuracy and precession of the component manufactured in such machine tools made of composite materials. By considering all the results, the induced deformation and strain in HM CFRP machine bed is less than conventional cast iron machine beds because specific strength and specific rigidity of HMCFRP machine bed is more than cast iron. The work suggests that HM CFRP material is best suited for CNC milling machine bed. 2.2 Conclusion derived from the Literature Review After reviewing above paper we can concluded that. An extensive study of literature has been carried out in the area of vibrational effect of the lathe bed. From the literature review it is understood that this area require further research to find some feasible solution to control the vibrational effect by changing the material. It is also determine that shape is also important factor for occurring Vibration of lathe bed. So it required further research for the shape of lathe bed. It is also require further research to find the damping force for vibration. CHAPTER 3 COMPOSITE 3.1 Introduction Composite materials are naturally occurring materials or synthetically prepared from 2 or more constituent materials with considerably different physical or chemical properties or both which remain isolated and dissimilar at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the completed structure. The elements are assorted in such a way so that they can retain their distinctive physical state and which are not solvable with each other nor a new chemical compound is formed. One element is known as reinforcing state which is embedded in another phase called matrix. The most visible applications are pavement in roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete. Most of the fibres are utilised as the reinforcing state and are even tougher than the matrix and this matrix is utilised in holding the fibres intact. Examples Aluminiums matrix implanted in boron fibres and an epoxy matrix implanted with glass or carbon fibres. These fibres may be long or short, directionally aligned or randomly orientated, or some sort of mixture, depending on the intended use of the material. Commonly utilised materials for the matrix are polymers, metals, ceramics, carbon and fibres are carbon (graphite) fibres, aramid fibres and boron fibres. Fibre-reinforced composite materials are further classified into the following Continuous reinforced fibre Discontinuous reinforced aligned fibre Discontinuous fibre-reinforced random oriented. CHAPTER 4 DAMPING AND FREQUENCY 4.1Definition of Damping In physics, damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations in an oscillatory system, particularly the harmonic oscillator. In mechanics, friction is one such damping effect. In engineering terms, damping may be mathematically modeled as a force synchronous with the velocity of the object but opposite in direction to it. If such force is also proportional to the velocity, as for a simple mechanical viscous damper (dashpot), the force F may be related to the velocity v by F -cv , where c is the viscous damping coefficient, given in units of Newton-seconds per meter. INCLUDEPICTURE http//ctms.engin.umich.edu/CTMS/Content/Introduction/System/Modeling/figures/mass_spring_damper.png MERGEFORMATINET Fig 4.1 Mass spring damper system An ideal mass-spring-damper system with mass m (kg), spring constant k (N/m) and viscous damper of damping coefficient c (in N-s/ m or kg/s) is subject to an oscillatory force and a damping force, Structural damping (at joints and interfaces) Fluid damping (through fluid-structure interactions) 4.2.1 Material (Internal) damping Internal damping of materials originates from the energy dissipation associated with microstructure defects, such as grain boundaries and impurities thermoelastic effects caused by local temperature gradients resulting from non uniform stresses, as in vibrating beams eddy current effects in ferromagnetic materials dislocation motion in metals and chain motion in polymers. Several models have been employed to represent energy dissipation caused by internal damping. This variety of models is primarily a result of the vast range of engineering materials no single model can satisfactorily represent the internal damping characteristics of all materials. 3.2.2 Structural damping Rubbing friction or contact among different elements in a mechanical system causes structural damping. Since the dissipation of energy depends on the particular characteristics of the mechanical system, it is very difficult to define a model that represents perfectly structural damping. The Coulomb-friction model is as a rule used to describe energy dissipation caused by rubbing friction. Regarding structural damping (caused by contact or impacts at joins), energy dissipation is determined by means of the coefficient of restitution of the two components that are in contact. Assuming an ideal Coulomb friction, the damping force at a join can be expressed through the following expression material, as a result the latter is subjected to a drag force. This force causes an energy dissipation that is known as fluid damping. The damping phenomenon can be applied to the machine tool systems in two ways 1. Passive damping 2. Active damping Passive damping refers to energy dissipation within the structure by add on damping devices such as isolator, by structural joints and supports, or by structural members internal damping. Active damping refers to energy dissipation from the system by external means, such as controlled actuator. 4.3 Damping mechanism in composite materials Damping mechanisms in composite materials differ entirely from those in conventional metals and alloys. The different sources of energy dissipation in fiber-reinforced composites are a) Viscoelastic nature of matrix and/or fiber materials (b) Damping due to interphase (c) Damping due to damage which is of two types (i) Frictional damping due to slip in the unbound regions between fiber and matrix . (ii) Damping due to energy dissipation in the area of matrix cracks, broken fibers etc. (d) Viscoplastic damping (e) Thermo elastic damping 4.4 frequency Frequency is the number of occurances of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also reffered to temporal frequency, which empasizes the constrast to spetial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of the time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. Common symbols f,v SI unit hz The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the german physicist heinrich hertz. One hertz means that an event repeats once per second. The previous name for this unit was cycle per second. The SI unit for the period is the second. There are two types of frequency Angular frequency denoted by greek letter omega, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement.angular frequency is commonly measured in radians per second. Spatial frequency spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axis. CHAPTER 5 OBJECTIVES AND METHEDOLOGY 5.1 Overview Damping capacity is an extent of a materials ability to dissipate elastic-strain energy during mechanical vibration or wave propagation. Complications involving vibration arise in many regions of mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering. The damping of a structural component or element is often a significantly overlooked criterion for good mechanical design. Numerous mechanical failures over a seemingly infinite multitude of structures occurred due to lack of damping in structural elements. For accounting the damping effects in a structural material, lots of researches and studies have been done in the field to suppress the vibration and to minimize the mechanical failures. Since it was found that damping materials can be utilized in treatment in passive damping technology to mechanical components and structures to increase the damping performance, there had been a commotion on the on-going research and studies over the last few periods to either alter the existing materials and components, or to develop an entirely new type of material to improve the structural dynamics of components for which damping concept could be applied. Composite structures are generally polymers, which give various ranges of different compositions which result in different material properties as well as behavior. Hence, composite damping structures and materials can be developed and tailored quite efficiently for a specific purpose and application. Problems involving vibration and damping occur in many regions of mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering. Engineering composite structures and materials are generally fabricated using a variety of connections which include bolted, riveted, welded and bonded joints etc. The dynamics of mechanical joints is a topic of special importance due to their strong effect on the performance of the structural material. Moreover, the inclusion of the above mentioned joints play a significant role in the overall system behavior, particularly the damping level of the components and structures. However, determining damping either by analysis or by experiment is never easy and straightforward keeping in view of the complexity of the dynamic interaction of components. The estimation of damping in beamlike structures using passive damping approach is very essential in problem solving addressed by the present research. 5.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK This thesis provides a final summary of the progress made over the past year on the study of damping of composites for machine tools applied to high stiffness and damping structural members. Composite materials are materials which dissipate strain energy when deformed in shear. This technology has a wide variety of engineering applications, including bridges, engine mounts, and machine components such as rotating shafts, component vibration isolation, novel spring designs which incorporate damping without the use of traditional dashpots or shock absorbers, and structural supports. The main focus of this dissertation is to study the composite materials to find its natural frequency and damping capacity of material using experimentation and finite element method. 5.3 Detailed Work Plan Task to be AccomplishedJuly 2014Aug 2014Sep 2014Oct 2014Selection of Research topicLiterature Review Internet SurfingStudy of Lathe BedStudy of composites materialsModeling of Lathe Bed in Creo ParamatricNumerical Analysis of Lathe Bed in ANSYS for Different MaterialReport Writing 5.4 Meetings with Experts To accomplish my goals successfully, I meet the following Experts. Prof. Antriksh Bhatt (internal guide) From his busy schedule, Antriksh Sir gives his valuable time for me. He gave me so many guidelines which are very helpful for me to accomplish my work. He also encouraged me to publish my Research work in a International journal. Prof. Y.D.VORA I meet Associate Professor Y.D.VORA Sir for the discussion of my Research work and he always shown me the correct path to accomplish my work successfully on the right time. In this thesis, various modal analyses have been done for the previously prepared model which was prepared in Pro-E 5.0 and then imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5. CHAPTER 6 NUMARICAL ANALYSIS OF LATHE BED Fi Fig Fixed support of lathe bed 7.1 Numerical analysis of Cast Iron Lathe bed 7.2 Numerical analysis of Epoxy Glass Lathe bed MODECAST IRONEPOXY GLASS1268.27345.522363.43470.263385.6497.434490.28634.415521.81679.076578.84749.07Table 8.1 Comparison of model frequency of lathe bed Fig 8.3 Comparison of modal frequency From the above comparision it shown that Natural Frequency of Epoxy Glass lathe bed is greater than Cast Iron lathe bed. CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES PAPERS Yang Zeqing, Liu Libing, Wangzuojie, Chen Yingshu1, Xiao Quanyang , Static and Dynamic Characteristic Simulation of Feed System Driven by Linear Motor in High Speed Computer Numerical Control Lathe TELKOMNIKA, Vol. 11, No. 7, July 2013, pp. 3673 3683. S.S. Abuthakeer, P.V. Mohanram and G. Mohankumar, Static and Dynamic Performance Improvement of Conventional Computer Numerical Control Machine Tool Bed with Hybrid Welded Steel American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (6) 610-616, 2011 Adib Bin Rashid1 , Hasibul Shams1 , Abdur Rashid Tipu2 , Mohammad Reyad Arefin, Investigation of the Effect of Composite Bed on Milling Machine to Reduce Chatter, International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Materials Engineering 2013 (ICMIME2013). S. SYATH ABUTHAKEER, 2. P.V. MOHANRAM, 3. G. MOHAN KUMAR , DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF MICRO LATHE BED,AFEHIJE,2011. Ajay Bhardwaj, Grey Cast Iron the best suitable material for lathe machine bed, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, volume 2, issue 8. Adib Bin Rashid1 , Hasibul Shams1 , Abdur Rashid Tipu2 , Mohammad Reyad Arefin, Investigation of the Effect of Composite Bed on Milling Machine to Reduce Chatter International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Materials Engineering 2013 (ICMIME2013). G. Vrtanoski and V. Dukovski, Design of polimer concrete main spindle housing for cnc lathe AMME 13th International scientific conference on achievements in mechanical and materials engineering 16th to 18th may2005. BOOKS Machine Tool Design, N.K.Mehta1, Person Publication. WEBSITES Lathe Machine Description http//www.americanmachinetools.com http//www.scientific.net http//www.springer.com http//www.ieee.in http//thescipub.com/journals/ajas Obc9pCZ_JeGw)ZCK 8a3wRJ4qbxb0WI8QDJ_GT06 4(4ZIErw.zh((qrH4TnRF4iKl1LJORRaRqZ2yhLTz2iqiT ( 7n
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